Peer-Reviewed papers

Wanka, Robin; Koschitzki, Florian; Puzovic, Vuk; Pahl, Thorben; Manderfeld, Emily; Hunsucker, Kelli Z.; Swain, Geoffrey; Rosenhahn, Axel. 2021. Synthesis and Characterization of Dendritic and Linear Glycol-Methacrylates and their Performance as Marine Antifouling Coatings. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces (in press)

Waltz GT, Hunsucker KZ, Swain G, Wendt DE. 2020. Using encrusting bryozoan adhesion to evaluate the efficacy of fouling release marine coatings. Biofouling

Wanka, Robin; Koc, Julian; Clarke, Jessica; Hunsucker, Kelli Z.; Swain, Geoffrey; Aldred, Nick; Finlay, John; Clare, Anthony; Rosenhahn, Axel. 2020. Sol-gel based hybrid materials as antifouling and fouling-release coatings for marine applications. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces. 12 (47) 53286–53296

Braga C, Hunsucker K, Erdogan, Gardner H, Swain G. 2020. The use of a UVC lamp incorporated with a ROV to prevent biofouling: a proof of concept study. Marine Technology Society Journal 54 (5): 76-83

Koc J, Schönemann E, Wanka R, Aldred N, Clare A, Gardner H, Swain G, Hunsucker K, Laschewsky A, Rosenhahn A. 2020. Effects of crosslink density in zwitterionic hydrogel coatings on their antifouling performance and susceptibility to silt uptake. Biofouling 36(6): 646-659

Koschitzki F, Wanka R, Sobota L, Koc J, Gardner H, Hunsucker KZ, Swain G, Rosenhahn A. 2020. Amphiphilic dicyclopentenyl/carboxybetaine containing copolymers for marine fouling-release applications. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces. 12 (30) 34148-34160

Braga C, Hunsucker KZ, Gardner H, Swain G. 2020. A novel design to investigate the impacts of UV exposure on marine biofouling. Applied Ocean Research. 101:

Hunsucker KZ, Gardner H, Lieberman K, Swain G. 2019. Using Hydrodynamic Testing to Assess the Performance of Five Fouling Control Coatings Immersed at Two Field Sites along the East Coast of Florida. Journal of Ocean Engineering

Fears KP, Barnikel A, Wassick A, Ryou H, Schultzhaus JA, Orihuela B, Scancella JM, So CR, Hunsucker KZ, Leary DH, Swain G, Rittschof D, Spillman CM, Wahl KJ. 2019. Adhesion of Acorn Barnacles on Surface-Active Borate Glasses. Philosophical Transactions B,

Hunsucker K, Braga C, Gardner H, Jongerius M, Hietbrink R, Salters B, Swain G. 2019. Using Ultraviolet Light for Improved Antifouling Performance on Ship Hull Coatings, Biofouling. 35 (6): 658-668

Koc J, Simovich T, Schönemann E, Chilkoti A, Gardner H, Swain G, Hunsucker K, Laschewsky A, Rosenhahn. A 2019. Sediment challenge to promising ultra-low fouling hydrophilic surfaces in the marine environment, Biofouling, 35:4, 454-462

Hunsucker KZ, Vora GJ, Hunsucker JT, Gardner H, Leary DH, Kim S, Lin B, Swain G. 2018. Biofilm community structure and associated drag penalties of a groomed fouling release ship hull coating. Biofouling doi: 10.1080/08927014.2017.1417395

 Dickenson NC, Krumholz JS, Hunsucker KZ, and Radicone M. 2017. Iodine-infused aeration for hull fouling prevention: a vessel-scale study. Biofouling doi: 10.1080/08927014.2017.1393803

 Sweat LH, Swain GW, Hunsucker KZ, Johnson KB. 2017. Transported biofilms and their influence on subsequent macrofouling colonization. Biofouling 33(5): 433-449

Tribou, M and G. Swain.  (2017) The effects of grooming on a copper ablative coating: a six year study.  Biofouling, 2017 VOL . 33, NO . 6, 494–504

Swain, G.  (2017)  A guide to developing a biofouling management plan.  Marine Technology Society Journal, March/April, 2017, Volume 51, Number 2, pp.105–110

Hunsucker, K. and E. Ralston (2017)  Marine biofouling and its prevention.  Marine Technology Society Journal, March/April, 2017, Volume 51, Number 2, p. 3.

Hunsucker, K. J. Hunsucker, H. Gardner, G. Swain (2017)  Static and dynamic comparisons for the evaluation of ship hull coatings.  Marine Technology Society Journal, March/April, 2017, Volume 51, Number 2, p. 71.

Briant H., A. Stephens, E. Ralston, K. Hunsucker, G. Swain (2017)  An effective mesocosm design for studying the settlement and recruitment of fouling organisms.  Marine Technology Society Journal, March/April, 2017, Volume 51, Number 2, p. 31.

Sweat H., G. Swain, K. Hunsucker, K. Johnson.  (2017)  Transported biofilms and their influence on subsequent macrofouling colonization.  Biofouling, 2017 VOL. 33, NO . 5, 433–449

Hunsucker J. Travis, Kelli Z. Hunsucker, Harrison Gardner & Geoffrey Swain  (2016) Influence of hydrodynamic stress on the frictional drag of biofouling communities  Biofouling, 2016 Vol . 32, No . 10, 1209–1221

Shane J. Stafslien, Stacy Sommer, Dean C. Webster, Rajan Bodkhe, Robert Pieper, Justin Daniels, Lyndsi Vander Wal, Maureen C. Callow, James A. Callow, Emily Ralston, Geoff Swain, Lenora Brewer, Dean Wendt, Gary H. Dickinson, Chin-Sing Lim & Serena Lay-Ming Teo (2016) Comparison of laboratory and field testing performance evaluations of siloxane-polyurethane fouling-release marine coatings. Biofouling Vol. 32, No.8, 949-968.

Swain G and G Lund (2016)  Dry-dock inspection methods for improved fouling control coating performance.  Journal of Ship Production and Design, Vol. 32, No.3, August 2016, pp.1-8.

John Hearin, Kelli Z. Hunsucker, Geoffrey Swain, Harrison Gardner, Abraham Stephens & Kody Lieberman (2016) Analysis of mechanical grooming at various frequencies on a large scale test panel coated with a fouling-release coating.  Biofouling, Vol. 32, No.5, PP 561-569.

Stella Bauer, Maria Alles, Maria Pilar Arpa-Sancet, Emily Ralston, Geoffrey Swain, Nicholas Aldred, Anthony S Clare, John A Finlay, Maureen E Callow, James A Callow, Axel Rosenhahn. (2016) Resistance of amphiphilic Polysaccharides against marine fouling organisms. BIOMACROMOLECULES • JANUARY 2016

Hunsucker K. and G.Swain (2015) In situ measurements of diatom adhesion to silicone-based ship hull coatings.  J Appl Phycol. May 2015.

John Hearin, Kelli Z. Hunsucker, Geoffrey Swain, Abraham Stephens, Harrison Gardner, Kody Lieberman & Michael Harper.  Analysis of long-term mechanical grooming on large-scale test panels coated with an antifouling and a fouling-release coating.  Biofouling, 2015 Vol. 31, No. 8, 625–638

Tribou M, and G Swain.  Grooming using rotating brushes as a proactive method to control fouling.  Biofouling 31,  No. 4, 309-319 May 2015

Swain G. and M. Tribou (2014) Grooming as an option for fouling control. Journal of Ocean Technology, Vol. 9, No. 4.

Hunsucker K, A Koka, G. Lund and G. Swain.  Diatom community structure on in-service cruise ship hulls.  Biofouling 30, No.9  1133-1140, Oct 2014.

Swain G and N. Shinjo.  (2014) Comparing Biofouling Control Treatments for Use on Aquaculture Nets.  Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15, 22142-22154

Thome I., S. Bauer, S. Vater , K. Zargiel , J.A. Finlay , M.P. Arpa-Sancet, M. Alles, J.A. Callow , M.E. Callow , G.W. Swain, M. Grunze  & A. Rosenhahn.  (2014).  Conditioning of self-assembled monolayers at two static immersion test sites along the east coast of Florida and its effect on early fouling development.  Biofouling 30 (8): 1011-1021

Ralston E, Swain G (2014) The ghost of fouling communities past: the effect of original community on subsequent recruitment. Biofouling 30 (4): 459-471.

Zargiel K A, Swain G. (2014). Static versus dynamic settlement and adhesion of diatoms to ship hull coatings. Biofouling 30(1): 115-129

Zargiel, K. J. Coogan, and G. Swain. (2011)  Diatom community structure on commercially available ship hull coatings.  Biofouling. Vol. 27, No. 9, October 2011, 955-965.

Ralston E. and G. Swain.  Can Biomimicry and Bioinspiration Provide Solutions for Fouling Control? Marine Technology Society Journal, Volume 45, Number 4, July/August 2011 , pp. 216-227(12)

Swain, G.  The importance of ship hull coatings and maintenance as drivers for environmental sustainability.  Proceedings of Ship Design and Operation for Environmental Sustainability. Royal Institute of Naval Architects, London. 10 - 11 March 2010.

Tribou, M. and G. Swain.  The use of proactive in-water grooming to improve the performance of ship hull antifouling coatings.  Biofouling 26:1, 47-56 Jan 2010.

Ralston E. and G. Swain.  Bioinspiration – The solution for biofouling control?  Bioinsp. Biomim. 4 (2009).

Swain Geoffrey, Brett Kovach, Arthur Touzot, Franck Casse, Christopher J Kavanagh.  Measuring the performance of today’s antifouling coatings. Journal of Ship Production, Aug 2007, V23, n. 3, pp. 164-171.

Stafslien S, J Daniels, B Mayo, D Christianson, B Chisholm, A Elkin, D Webster and G Swain.  Combinatorial materials research applied to the development of new surface coatings IV.  A high-throughput bacterial biofilm retention and retraction assay for screening fouling-release performance coatings.  Biofouling 23 (1/2): 45-54  2007.

Srinivasan Mridula and Geoffrey W. Swain.  Managing the Use of Copper-Based Antifouling Paints.  Environmental Management 39:423-441  2007.

Swain Geoffrey; Stephanie Herpe; Emily Ralston; Melissa Tribou.  Short-term testing of antifouling surfaces: the importance of colour.  Biofouling, 22(6):  425 - 429  2006

Holm, ER; Kavanagh, CJ; Meyer, AE; Wiebe, D; Nedved, BT; Wendt, D; Smith, CM; Hadfield, MG; Swain, G; Wood, CD; Truby, K; Stein, J; Montemarano, J.  Interspecific variation in patterns of adhesion of marine fouling to silicone surfaces.  Biofouling [Biofouling]. Vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 233-243. 2006.

Meyer Anne; Robert Baier; Christina Darkangelo Wood; Judith Stein; Kathryn Truby; Eric Holm; Jean Montemarano; Christopher Kavanagh; Brian Nedved; Celia Smith; Geoff Swain; Deborah Wiebe.  Contact angle anomalies indicate that surface-active eluates from silicone coatings inhibit the adhesive mechanisms of fouling organisms.  Biofouling, 22(6):  411-423  2006

Cassé, F. and  Swain, G.  The development of microfouling on four commercial antifouling coatings under static and dynamic immersion. International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation Volume 57, Issue 3, Pages 179-185 April 2006

Kavanagh, C., Quinn, R. and Swain, G.  Observations of barnacle detachment from silicones using high-speed video.  The Journal of Adhesion, 81:1-26, 2005

Sun; Yujie Senli Guo; Gilbert C. Walker; Christopher J. Kavanagh; Geoffrey W. Swain. Surface elastic modulus of barnacle adhesive and release characteristics from silicone surfaces.  Biofouling, 20 (6):  279 - 289  2006

Shinjo, N. Swain, G. Use of shape memory alloys for the design of an oscillatory propulsion system.  IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering.  V29. No3, p750-756. July 2004

Jacobson, A., Swain, G. Little, B., Putnam, M. Preface. Biofouling Volume 19, Supplement 1 pages 1-7.  2003

Stein, J., K. Truby, C.D. Wood, J. Stein, M. Gardner, G. Swain, C. Kavanagh, B. Kovach, M. Schultz, D. Wiebe, E. Holm, J. Montemarano, D. Wendt, C. Smith and A. Meyer. “Silicone Foul Release Coatings: Effect of the Interaction of Oil and Coating Functionalities on the  Magnitude of Macrofouling Attachment Strengths.” Biofouling 19 (suppl) pp. 71-82. 2003.

Stein, J, K. Truby, D.C. Wood, M, Takemori, M. Vallance, G. Swain, C. Kavanagh, B. Kovach, M. Schultz, D. Weibe, E. Holm, J. Montemarano, D. Wendt, C. Smith and A. Meyer. “Structure-Property relationships of Silicone Biofouling-release Coatings: Effect of Silicone Network Architecture on Pseudobarnacle Attachment Strengths.” Biofouling 19: pp.87-94. 2003.

Kavanagh C.; Swain G.; Kovach B.; Stein J.; Darkangelo-Wood C.; Truby K.; Holm E.; Montemarano J.; Meyer A.; Wiebe D. “The Effects of Silicone Fluid Additives and Silicone Elastomer Matrices on Barnacle Adhesion Strength.” Biofouling, December 2003, vol. 19, no. 6, pp. 381-390(10)

Finlay, J. A., M. E. Callow, M.P. Schultz, G.W. Swain and J.A. Callow. “Adhesion Strength of SettledSpores of the Green Alga Enteromorpha.” (2002). Biofouling 18: 251-256

Kavanagh, C.J., M. P. Schultz, G. W. Swain, J. Stein, K. Truby and C. Darkangelo Wood.  “Variation in Adhesion Strength of Balanus eburneus, Crassostrea virginica and Hydroides dianthus to Fouling-Release Coatings,” Biofouling, Vol17 (2) pp. 155-167, 2001.

Swain, G.W, A.C. Anil,Robert E. Baier, Fu-shiang Chia, E. Conte, Angela Cook, Michael Hadfield, Elizabeth Haslbeck, Eric Holm, Christopher Kavanagh, Don Kohrs, Brett Kovach, Cynthia Lee, Lucia Mazzella, Anne E. Meyer, Pei-Yuan  Qian, S.S. Sawant Michael Schultz, Jon Sigurdsson, Celia Smith, Lisa Soo, Antonio Terlizzi, Arun Wagh, Richard Zimmerman, Valerio Zupo  “Biofouling and Barnacle Adhesion Data for Fouling-Release Coatings Subjected to Static Immersion at Seven Marine Sites”. Biofouling 2000, Vol 16(2-4) pp. 331-344

Darkangelo Wood, C., K. Truby, J. Stein, D. Wiebe, E. Holm, D. Wendt, C. Smith, C. Kavanagh, J. Montemarano, G. Swain, and A. Meyer. “Temporal and spatial variations in macrofouling of silicone fouling-release coatings.” Biofouling 2000, 16:311-322.

Wynne K., G. Swain, R.B. Fox, S. Bullock, J. Ulik. “Two Silicone Nontoxic fouling release coatings: Hydrosilylation cured PDMS and CaCO3 filled Ethoxysilane Cured RTV11.” Biofouling 16: 277-288. 2000.

Truby, K., C. Wood, J. Stein, J. Cella, J. Carpenter, C. Kavanagh, G. Swain, D. Wiebe, D. Lapota, A. Meyer, E. Holm, D. Wendt, C. Smith, and J. Montemarano. “Evaluation of the performance enhancement of silicone biofouling-release coatings by oil incorporation.” Biofouling 2000, Vol 15:141-150.

Schultz, M. P., G.W. Swain, “The Influence of Biofilms on Skin Friction Drag,”  (2000), Biofouling, Vol. 15, pp. 129-139.

Swain, G.W. “Redefining Antifouling Coatings”. Journal of Protective Coatings and Linings, Vol. 16, No.9, pp 26 – 35, September 1999.

Swain, G.W. “Redefining Antifouling Coatings”. Protective and Marine Coatings, Vol. 2, No. 9, pp 26 – 35,  September 1999.

Swain, G.W. “Redefining Antifouling Coatings”. Protective Coatings Europe, V.4, No. 7, pp 18 – 25, July 1999.

Jones-Meehan, J., J. Cella, J. A. Montemarano, G. Swain, D. Wiebe, A. Meyer and R.E. Baier.  Advanced Nontoxic Fouling Release Coatings, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20903-5320.  NRL/PU/6110--99-388, 27 July 1999, 43 pages.

Schultz, M.P., Kavanagh, C.J., and Swain G.W.  “Hydrodynamic Forces on Barnacles:  Implications on the Detachment from Fouling-Release Surfaces.”  Biofouling  Vol. 13 (4) pp 323-335, 1999.

Schultz, M.P and Swain G.W.  “The Effect of Biofilms on Turbulent Boundary Layers” Journal of Fluids Engineering Vol. 121, pp 1 – 8, March 1999.

Swain, G. W. “Biofouling Control: a Critical Component of Drag Reduction,” International Symposium on Seawater Drag Reduction, Newport, RI, 22-24 July 1998.

Schultz, M. and Swain, G. W. “The Effect of Biofilms on Turbulent Boundary Layer Structure,” International Symposium on Seawater Drag Reduction, Newport, RI, 22-24 July 1998.

Kovach, B. and Swain, G. W. “A Boat Mounted Foil to Measure the Drag Properties of Antifouling Coatings Applied to Static Immersion Panels,” International Symposium on Seawater Drag Reduction, Newport, RI, 22-24 July 1998.

Cella, J.A., T.B. Burnell, J. Stein and G.W. Swain, "Chemistry of Nontoxic Silicone Biofoul Release Coatings," 1997 International Chemical Congress of Pacific Basin Societies, Honolulu, Hawaii, December, 1997.

Mera, A.E., Fox, R.B., Bullock, S., Swain, G.W., Schultz, M.P., Gatenholm, P., Wynne, K.J. “Toward Minimally Adhesive Surfaces Utilizing Siloxanes,” Naval Research Review, Vol. XLIX. pp 4 – 8, 1997.

Swain, G. W. “Field Evaluations of Non-Toxic Antifouling Coatings:  New Field Technologies and Performance Criteria”, Naval Research Review, Vol. XLIX. pp 46 – 50, 1997.

Swain, G.W.J, Nelson, W.G., and Preedeekanit, S.  “The Influence of Biofouling Adhesion and Biotic Disturbance on the Development of Fouling Communities on Non-Toxic Surfaces” Biofouling Vol. 12 (1 – 3)  pp 257 – 269, 1997.

Swain, G.W.J., Schultz, P., Griffith, J. and Snyder, S.  “The Relationship between Barnacle and Pseudo-barnacle Adhesion Measurements: A Method to Predict the Foul Release Properties of Silicones?”  Proceedings of the U.S. Pacific Rim Workshop.  Emerging Nonmetallic Materials for the Marine Environment.  Paper 10, East-West Center, Honolulu, Hawaii March 18 – 20, 1997.

Swain, G.W.J. and Schultz, M.P.  “The Testing and Evaluation of Non-Toxic Antifouling Coatings,”  Biofouling Vol. 10, pp 187-197, 1996.

Swain, G.W.J., Tabar, J., Miceli, F., Muller, E. "The Interaction Between Immersed and Above Water Cathodic Protection Systems for Reinforced Concrete in Seawater," Proceedings of Corrosion 95  Paper No. 506 March 1995.

Swain, G.W.J., Muller, E., Polly, D. "A Cathodic Protection System for the Living Seas-Epcot Center.” Materials Performance, V. 33, No. 10, p21, October 1994.

Swain, G.W.J., Schultz, M.P., and Vincent, H.L., "Shear Force Measurements of Barnacle Adhesion for Field Evaluation of Non-Toxic Foul Release Surfaces." In: Recent Developments in Biofouling Control. Eds. Mary-Frances Thompson, Rachakonda Nagabhushanam, Rachakonda Sarojini, Milton Fingerman, Oxford and IBH Publishing Co., 1994

Swain, G.W.J., Muller, E., Polly, D. "The Design and Installation of a Cathodic Protection System for the Living Seas, Epcot Center,” Proceedings of Corrosion 94, Paper No.495. March 1994.

Swain, G.W.J., Griffith, J., Bultman, D., and Vincent, H., "The Use of Barnacle Adhesion Measurements for the Field Evaluation of Non-toxic Foul Release Surfaces," Biofouling, 1992, V.6, pp. 105-114

Swain, G.W.J. and Muller, E. "Oxygen Concentration Cells and Corrosion in a Seawater Aquarium,". Proceedings of Corrosion 92, No 394, 1992.

Lockert, C.R., Harris, L.E., Swain G.W. and Zarillo G.A. (1991) "Comingled Recycled Plastic Lumber in Marine Structures." Recycled Plastic Conference, Gainsville Florida, April 1991.

Swain, G.W.J. and Patrick Maxwell, J., (1990) "The Effect of Biofouling on the Performance of Al Zn Hg Anodes." Corrosion, March 1990.

Swain, G.W.J. and Thomason, W., (1990) "Cathodic Protection and the Use of Copper Antifouling Systems on Fixed Offshore Steel Structures." Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering 9th International Conference, Houston. February 18 23, 1990.

Swain, G.W.J. and Patrick Maxwell, J., (1989) "The Effect of Biofouling on the Performance of Al Zn Hg Anodes." Proceedings of Corrosion 1989, New Orleans, LA.  April 1989.

Swain, G.W.J. and Zborowski, A., (1989). "The Requirements for an Antifouling Coating in the Absence of Organotin." Proceedings of the Power Boat Symposium, Miami, Florida, Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers, 15 February, 1989.

Pittman, F., Swain, G. and Morton, J., (1988). "Go, and Tin no More," Sail, pp. 98 100, Apr.88.

Swain, G.W.J. and Patrick Maxwell, J.,  (1987) "The Performance of Biofouled Sacrificial Anodes,” Proceedings of the Offshore Technology Conference, Houston, Texas. 27   30 April 1987, paper OTC 5481.

Swain, G.W.J.,(1987)  "Evaluation of Antifouling Coatings for Fixed Offshore Structures,"  Proceedings of the 6th International Symposium on Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering, Houston, Texas, March 1 5 1987.

Swain, G.W.J., (1986) "Accelerated Testing of Antifouling Coatings for Use on Offshore Structures," Oceans 86  Joint MTS/IEEE Conference and Exposition, Washington, D.C.  September 23 25, 1986.

Picken, G.B., Forteath G.N., Ralph R. and Swain G. (1983).  "Fouling Beyond 100 meters on the European Continental Shelf," In. Progress in Underwater Technology: Proceedings of the Subsea Challenge Conference, Amsterdam, June, 1983.

Swain, G.W.J., Hutton, S.P. and Farrar, R.A. (1982)  "The Use of Controlled Copper Dissolution as an Antifouling System."  Journal of Materials Science.  17, 1079 1094.

Swain, G.W.J., (1979) "Cayman Islands Natural Resources Study." Progress in Underwater Science, Vol. 5.

Swain G.W.J. and Hull L.E., (1979) "Biological Investigations in a Topical Lagoon, Grand Cayman, B.W.I."  Proceedings of the CICAR II Symposium, Caracas, Venezuela.  12 16 July 1976.


ASTM D5618 (1994) Standard test method for measurement of barnacle adhesion strength in shear, American Standard for Testing and Materials, Paint - Tests for formulated products and applied coatings. V: 06.01